Aristides of Athens (2nd century AD) on the conduct of Christians


In my final post for 2013, I turn to the first half of the 2nd century AD, to Aristides of Athens, a Greek Christian author, who wrote an Apology to the Roman emperor Hadrian, in order to counter the popular notion that Christians were nothing but a sect of erring troublemakers, and the persecution that came with it.

Aristides starts his apology in chapter 1 by stating some of the attributes of the true God. He then says in chapter 2 that there are “four classes of men in this world: Barbarians and Greeks, Jews and Christians”, and goes on to describe the religious practices of each of these “classes”, pointing out the errors of the first three classes and attempting to make a positive case for Christians.

First, of the Barbarians (chapters 3-7) he states that they worship dead warriors and the elements of the Earth, which he claims are the works of God, therefore they do not know who the true God is (i.e. they worship creature rather than Creator).

The Greeks (chapters 8-13) are next because: “they are more subtle than the Barbarians, have gone further astray than the Barbarians; inasmuch as they have introduced many fictitious gods, and have set up some of them as males and some as females; and in that some of their gods were found who were adulterers, and did murder, and were deluded, and envious, and wrathful and passionate, and parricides, and thieves, and robbers.” In other words, Aristides is calling the Greek gods corrupt, immoral and guilty of being human. He concludes his chapters on the Greeks by commenting on the religious beliefs of the Egyptians, who he claims are the most ignorant people on earth since they did not accept the beliefs of the Greeks or Chaldeans and instead worshipped gods modeled after plants and animals.

The Jews (chapter 14) are only commented on in a concise manner. Aristides commends them for their worship of God as the Creator and almighty but claims they have “erred from true knowledge” because “in their imagination they conceive that it is God they serve; whereas by their mode of observance it is to the angels and not to God that their service is rendered:— as when they celebrate sabbaths and the beginning of the months, and feasts of unleavened bread, and a great fast; and fasting and circumcision and the purification of meats, which things, however, they do not observe perfectly.”

In chapters 15 and 16 (given below in full), Aristides then sets forth his description of and apology for the Christians:

“15. But the Christians, O King, while they went about and made search, have found the truth; and as we learned from their writings, they have come nearer to truth and genuine knowledge than the rest of the nations. For they know and trust in God, the Creator of heaven and of earth, in whom and from whom are all things, to whom there is no other god as companion, from whom they received commandments which they engraved upon their minds and observe in hope and expectation of the world which is to come. Wherefore they do not commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear false witness, nor embezzle what is held in pledge, nor covet what is not theirs. They honour father and mother, and show kindness to those near to them; and whenever they are judges, they judge uprightly. They do not worship idols (made) in the image of man; and whatsoever they would not that others should do unto them, they do not to others; and of the food which is consecrated to idols they do not eat, for they are pure. And their oppressors they appease [literally: comfort] and make them their friends; they do good to their enemies; and their women, O King, are pure as virgins, and their daughters are modest; and their men keep themselves from every unlawful union and from all uncleanness, in the hope of a recompense to come in the other world. Further, if one or other of them have bondmen and bondwomen or children, through love towards them they persuade them to become Christians, and when they have done so, they call them brethren without distinction. They do not worship strange gods, and they go their way in all modesty and cheerfulness. Falsehood is not found among them; and they love one another, and from widows they do not turn away their esteem; and they deliver the orphan from him who treats him harshly. And he, who has, gives to him who has not, without boasting. And when they see a stranger, they take him in to their homes and rejoice over him as a very brother; for they do not call them brethren after the flesh, but brethren after the spirit and in God. And whenever one of their poor passes from the world, each one of them according to his ability gives heed to him and carefully sees to his burial. And if they hear that one of their number is imprisoned or afflicted on account of the name of their Messiah, all of them anxiously minister to his necessity, and if it is possible to redeem him they set him free. And if there is among them any that is poor and needy, and if they have no spare food, they fast two or three days in order to supply to the needy their lack of food. They observe the precepts of their Messiah with much care, living justly and soberly as the Lord their God commanded them. Every morning and every hour they give thanks and praise to God for His loving-kindnesses toward them; and for their food and their drink they offer thanksgiving to Him. And if any righteous man among them passes from the world, they rejoice and offer thanks to God; and they escort his body as if he were setting out from one place to another near. And when a child has been born to one of them, they give thanks to God; and if moreover it happen to die in childhood, they give thanks to God the more, as for one who has passed through the world without sins. And further if they see that anyone of them dies in his ungodliness or in his sins, for him they grieve bitterly, and sorrow as for one who goes to meet his doom.

16. Such, O King, is the commandment of the law of the Christians, and such is their manner of life. As men who know God, they ask from Him petitions which are fitting for Him to grant and for them to receive. And thus they employ their whole lifetime. And since they know the loving-kindnesses of God toward them, behold! For their sake the glorious things which are in the world flow forth to view. And verily, they are those who found the truth when they went about and made search for it; and from what we considered, we learned that they alone come near to a knowledge of the truth. And they do not proclaim in the ears of the multitude the kind deeds they do, but are careful that no one should notice them; and they conceal their giving just as he who finds a treasure and conceals it. And they strive to be righteous as those who expect to behold their Messiah, and to receive from Him with great glory the promises made concerning them. And as for their words and their precepts, O King, and their glorying in their worship, and the hope of earning according to the work of each one of them their recompense which they look for in another world, you may learn about these from their writings. It is enough for us to have shortly informed your Majesty concerning the conduct and the truth of the Christians. For great indeed, and wonderful is their doctrine to him who will search into it and reflect upon it. And verily, this is a new people, and there is something divine [literally: a divine admixture] in the midst of them.

Take, then, their writings, and read therein, and lo! You will find that I have not put forth these things on my own authority, nor spoken thus as their advocate; but since I read in their writings I was fully assured of these things as also of things which are to come. And for this reason I was constrained to declare the truth to such as care for it and seek the world to come. And to me there is no doubt but that the earth abides through the supplication of the Christians. But the rest of the nations err and cause error in wallowing before the elements of the world, since beyond these their mental vision will not pass. And they search about as if in darkness because they will not recognize the truth; and like drunken men they reel and jostle one another and fall.”

Aristides concludes his Apology in chapter 17 by requesting the emperor stop persecuting the Christians and convert to their faith; where he ends with a description of the Christian life:

“17. Thus far, O King, I have spoken; for concerning that which remains, as is said above, there are found in their other writings things which are hard to utter and difficult for one to narrate,— which are not only spoken in words but also wrought out in deeds.

Now the Greeks, O King, as they follow base practises in intercourse with males, and a mother and a sister and a daughter, impute their monstrous impurity in turn to the Christians. But the Christians are just and good, and the truth is set before their eyes, and their spirit is long-suffering; and, therefore, though they know the error of these (the Greeks), and are persecuted by them, they bear and endure it; and for the most part they have compassion on them, as men who are destitute of knowledge. And on their side, they offer prayer that these may repent of their error; and when it happens that one of them has repented, he is ashamed before the Christians of the works which were done by him; and he makes confession to God, saying, I did these things in ignorance. And he purifies his heart, and his sins are forgiven him, because he committed them in ignorance in the former time, when he used to blaspheme and speak evil of the true knowledge of the Christians. And assuredly the race of the Christians is more blessed than all the men who are upon the face of the earth.

Henceforth let the tongues of those who utter vanity and harass the Christians be silent; and hereafter let them speak the truth. For it is of serious consequence to them that they should worship the true God rather than worship a senseless sound. And verily whatever is spoken in the mouth of the Christians is of God; and their doctrine is the gateway of light. Wherefore let all who are without the knowledge of God draw near thereto; and they will receive incorruptible words, which are from all time and from eternity. So shall they appear before the awful judgment which through Jesus the Messiah is destined to come upon the whole human race.”

Athenagoras of Athens (c. 133-190) on the Christian God


In his defense of the Christian faith against pagan criticism, commonly called Apologia and written circa 177 and addressed to the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus, Athenagoras of Athens (c. 133-190) sets out the main features of the gospel in a clear and reasonable manner. The early Christians were accused of atheism on account of their refusal to worship the emperor (and Roman gods). In this excerpt, in which Athenagoras explains what Christians believe about God, important anticipations of later thinking on the Trinity can be detected:

“So we are not atheists, in that we acknowledge one God, who is uncreated, eternal, invisible, impassible, incomprehensible, and without limit. He is apprehended only by the intellect and the mind, and is surrounded by light, beauty, spirit, and indescribable power. The universe was created and ordered, and is presently sustained, through his Logos… For we acknowledge also a ‘Son of God.’ Nobody should think it ridiculous that God should have a son. Although the pagan poets, in their fictions, represent the gods as being no better than human beings, we do not think in the same way as they do concerning either God the Father or God the Son. For the Son of God is the Logos of the Father, both in thought and in reality. It was through his action, and after his pattern, that all things were made, in that the Father and Son are one… [The Son] is the first creation of the Father – not meaning that he was brought into existence, in that, from the beginning, God, who is the eternal mind (nous), had the Logos within himself, being eternally of the character of the Logos (logikos). Rather, it is meant that he came forth to be the pattern and motivating power of all physical things… We affirm that the Holy Spirit, who was active in the prophets, is an effluence of God, who flows from him and returns to him, like a beam of the sun.”

– Athenagoras of Athens (c. 133-190), Apologia, X, 1-4

J. Gresham Machen (1881-1937): Sturdy contenders for the truth


“What is the duty of Christian men at such at time? What is the duty, in particular, of Christian officers in the Church?

In the first place, they should encourage those who are engaging in the intellectual and spiritual struggle. They should not say, in the sense in which some laymen say it, that more time should be devoted to the propagation of Christianity, and less to the defense of Christianity. Certainly there should be propagation of Christianity. Believers should certainly not content themselves with warding off attacks, but should also unfold in an orderly and positive way the full riches of the gospel. But far more is usually meant by those who call for less defense and more propagation. What they really intend is the discouragement of the whole intellectual defense of the faith. And their words come as a blow in the face of those who are fighting the great battle. As a matter of fact, not less time, but more time, should be devoted to the defense of the gospel. Indeed, truth cannot be stated clearly at all without being set over against error. Thus a large part of the New Testament is polemic; the enunciation of evangelical truth was occasioned by the errors which had arisen in the churches. So it will always be, on account of the fundamental laws of the human mind. Moreover, the present crisis must be taken into account. There may have been a day when there could be propagation of Christianity without defense. But such a day at any rate is past. At the present time, when the opponents of the gospel are almost in control of our churches, the slightest avoidance of the defense of the gospel is just sheer unfaithfulness to the Lord. There have been previous great crises in the history of the Church, crises almost comparable to this. One appeared in the second century, when the very life of Christendom was threatened by the Gnostics. Another came in the Middle Ages when the gospel of God’s grace seemed forgotten. In such times of crisis, God has always saved the Church. But He has always saved it not by theological pacifists, but by sturdy contenders for the truth.”

– J. Gresham Machen (1881-1937), Christianity & Liberalism, p. 146-147

William Wilberforce (1759-1833) on the importance of nurturing the young for apologetics


“In an age wherein it is confessed and lamented that infidelity abounds, do we observe in them any remarkable care to instruct their children in the principles of the faith which they profess, and to furnish them with arguments for the defence of it? They would blush, on their child’s coming out into the world, to think him defective in any branch of that knowledge, or of those accomplishments which belong to his station in life, and accordingly these are cultivated with becoming assiduity. But he is left to collect his religion as he may; the study of Christianity has formed no part of his education, and his attachment to it (where any attachment to it exists at all) is, too often, not the preference of sober reason, but merely the result of early prejudice and groundless prepossession. He was born in a Christian country, of course he is a Christian; his father was a member of the church of England, so is he. When such is the hereditary religion handed down from generation to generation, it cannot surprise us to observe young men of sense and spirit beginning to doubt altogether of the truth of the system in which they have been brought up, and ready to abandon a station which they are unable to defend. Knowing Christianity chiefly in the difficulties which it contains, and in the impossibilities, which are falsely imputed to it, they fall perhaps into the company of infidels; and, as might be expected, they are shaken by frivolous objections and profane cavils, which, had they been grounded and bottomed in reason and argument, would have passed by them ‘as the idle wind,’ and scarcely have seemed worthy of serious notice.”

– William Wilberforce (1759-1833), A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, in the Middle and Higher Classes in this Country, Contrasted with Real Christianity, p. 10-11

Francis Schaeffer (1912-1984) on ripping Jesus Christ from true history and the content of Scripture


“The old liberal theologians in Germany began by accepting the presupposition of the uniformity of natural causes as a closed system. Thus they rejected everything miraculous and supernatural, including the supernatural in the life of Jesus Christ. Having done that, they still hoped to find a historical Jesus in a rational, objective, scholarly way by separating the supernatural aspect of Jesus’ life from the ‘true history’. Their search for the historical Jesus was doomed to failure. The supernatural was so intertwined with the rest that if they ripped out all the supernatural, there was no Jesus left! If they removed all the supernatural, no historical Jesus remained; if they kept the historical Jesus, the supernatural remained as well.”

“[P]eople in our culture in general are already in the process of being accustomed to accept nondefined, contentless religious words and symbols, without any rational or historical control. Such words and symbols can be filled with the content of the moment. The words Jesus and Christ are the most ready for the manipulator. The phrase Jesus Christ has become a contentless banner which can be carried in any direction for sociological purposes. In other words, because the phrase Jesus Christ has been separated from true history and the content of Scripture, it can be used to trigger religiously motivated sociological actions directly contrary to the teaching of Christ.”

– Francis Schaeffer (1912-1984), The God Who is There, pp. 72, 110

Epistle to Diognetus (2nd century) on the Christian life: In the world but not of it


The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus is an example of early Christian apologetics, writings defending Christianity from its accusers. The Greek writer and recipient are not otherwise known; estimates of dating based on the language and other textual evidence have ranged from AD 130 (which would make it one of the earliest examples of apologetic literature), to the late 2nd century, with the latter often preferred in modern scholarship. “Mathetes” is not a proper name; it simply means “a disciple.”

I remember working on this specific excerpt (posted below) a couple of years ago in Greek class. I regard it as a beautiful description of Christians and the Christian life. It was written to correct many misconceptions and false allegations about Christians and Christian living in the 2nd century. If you’ve never read the Epistle to Diognetus, I’m sure you’ll enjoy this:

For Christians are not distinguished from the rest of mankind either in locality or in speech or in customs. For they dwell not somewhere in cities of their own, neither do they use some different language, nor practise an extraordinary kind of life. Nor again do they possess any invention discovered by any intelligence or study of ingenious men, nor are they masters of any human dogma as some are. But while they dwell in cities of Greeks and barbarians as the lot of each is cast, and follow the native customs in dress and food and the other arrangements of life, yet the constitution of their own citizenship, which they set forth, is marvellous, and confessedly contradicts expectation. They dwell in their own countries, but only as sojourners; they bear their share in all things as citizens, and they endure all hardships as strangers. Every foreign country is a fatherland to them, and every fatherland is foreign. They marry like all other men and they beget children; but they do not cast away their offspring. They have their meals in common, but not their wives. They find themselves in the flesh, and yet they live not after the flesh. Their existence is on earth, but their citizenship is in heaven. They obey the established laws, and they surpass the laws in their own lives. They love all men, and they are persecuted by all. They are ignored, and yet they are condemned. They are put to death, and yet they are endued with life. They are in beggary, and yet they make many rich. They are in want of all things, and yet they abound in all things. They are dishonoured, and yet they are glorified in their dishonour. They are evil spoken of, and yet they are vindicated. They are reviled, and they bless; they are insulted, and they respect. Doing good they are punished as evil-doers; being punished they rejoice, as if they were thereby quickened by life. War is waged against them as aliens by the Jews, and persecution is carried on against them by the Greeks, and yet those that hate them cannot tell the reason of their hostility.

In a word, what the soul is in a body, this the Christians are in the world. The soul is spread through all the members of the body, and Christians through the divers cities of the world. The soul hath its abode in the body, and yet it is not of the body. So Christians have their abode in the world, and yet they are not of the world. The soul which is invisible is guarded in the body which is visible: so Christians are recognised as being in the world, and yet their religion remaineth invisible. The flesh hateth the soul and wageth war with it, though it receiveth no wrong, because it is forbidden to indulge in pleasures; so the world hateth Christians, though it receiveth no wrong from them, because they set themselves against its pleasures. The soul loveth the flesh which hateth it, and the members: so Christians love those that hate them. The soul is enclosed in the body, and yet itself holdeth the body together; so Christians are kept in the world as in a prison-house, and yet they themselves hold the world together. The soul though itself immortal dwelleth in a mortal tabernacle; so Christians sojourn amidst perishable things, while they look for the imperishability which is in the heavens. The soul when hardly treated in the matter of meats and drinks is improved; and so Christians when punished increase more and more daily. So great is the office for which God hath appointed them, and which it is not lawful for them to decline.”

– Epistle to Diognetus (2nd century), v-vi.

Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35-107) against docetism


“I glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who by Him has given you such wisdom. For I have observed that ye are perfected in an immoveable faith, as if ye were nailed to the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, both in the flesh and in the spirit, and are established in love through the blood of Christ, being fully persuaded, in very truth, with respect to our Lord Jesus Christ, that He was the Son of God, ‘the first-born of every creature,’ God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and was of the seed of David according to the flesh, by the Virgin Mary; was baptized by John, that all righteousness might be fulfilled by Him; that He lived a life of holiness without sin, and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His flesh. From whom we also derive our being, from His divinely-blessed passion, that He might set up a standard for the ages, through His resurrection, to all His holy and faithful [followers], whether among Jews or Gentiles, in the one body of His Church. Now, He suffered all these things for our sakes, that we might be saved. And He suffered truly, even as also He truly raised up Himself, not, as certain unbelievers maintain, that He only seemed to suffer, as they themselves only seem to be [Christians]. And as they believe, so shall it happen unto them, when they shall be divested of their bodies, and be mere evil spirits.”

– Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35-107), To the Smyrnaeans, i-ii.

While we may question Ignatius’ last statement that docetist heretics (those who claimed that Christ was not really a true man of flesh and blood but only seemed or appeared this way) would end up as “evil spirits”, or as it is elsewhere translated, “phantom-like”, we can nonetheless see that the docetist heresy carried with it dire consequences. His main point in the letter to the Smyrnaeans was to counter docetism and defend the true Incarnation of Christ, which was a major issue in the early church.

John Knox (c. 1514–1572) on the eternal predestination of God


While John Knox (c. 1514–1572) was living in Geneva about 1558, he was asked by people back in England to answer a book circulating there titled Careless by Necessity. This work, written by an Anabaptist, denied the doctrine of Predestination. Knox complied with the English request and wrote On Predestination in Answer to the Cavillations by an Anabaptist probably completing the work while in Dieppe awaiting official permission to re-enter England. This work is the longest of Knox’s writings. No doubts exist concerning its authorship – already in the title of this book we see the character of the fiery Scottish Reformer, as will also be seen in the quotes below. Knox was independently named as its author when permission was granted for it to be printed in Geneva on Nov. 13th 1559. I realize this may be a relatively long read, but I felt none of the quotes below could be left out. This is Knox at his fiery best:

Satan ever from the beginning hath declared himself enemy to the free and undeserved love of God. He hath now in these most corrupt days most furiously raged against that doctrine, which attributeth all praise and glory of our redemption to the eternal love and undeserved grace of God alone.” (p. 24)

“But yet I say, that the doctrine of God’s eternal predestination is so necessary to the church of God, that, without the same, can faith neither be truly taught, neither surely established; man can never be brought to true humility and knowledge of himself; neither yet can he be ravished in admiration of God’s eternal goodness, and so moved to praise him as appertaineth.” (p. 25)

“And therefore we say, that such as attribute any thing to themselves in the grace of their election, have not learned to give God the honour which to Him appertaineth, because they do not freely confess what maketh them to differ from others.” (p. 28)

“Such as desire this Article to be buried in silence, and would that men should teach and believe that the grace of God’s election is common to all, but that one receiveth it and another receiveth it not, proceedeth either from their obedience or disobedience; such deceive themselves and are unthankful and injurious to God.” (p. 29)

“Alas! Shall I, whose corporal eye is so feeble and weak that directly it cannot behold the sun, which is a visible creature, but that it shall be blinded and dazed, shall I, I say, direct the eye of my mind (corrupted by sin) to measure and comprehend the brightness of His justice, who dwelleth in light inaccessible!” (p. 55)

“If these things do displease you, remember first, that they are the voices of the Holy Ghost; and secondly, call to mind the condition of mankind (compared with that sovereign Majesty) be but worms creeping upon the earth, and therefore we can not climb up to heaven, and so reason or plead with the Almighty.” (p. 65)

“If Predestination proceedeth from God’s purpose and will (as the apostle affirmeth that it doth, then the purpose and will of God being eternal, can not be moved by our works or faith being temporal.” (p. 73)

“Now seeing that good works spring forth from election, how can any man be so foolish as to affirm that they are the cause of the same?” (p. 76)

“Now if man hath nothing but that which he receiveth of grace, of free gift, of favour and mercy, what odious pride and horrible unthankfulness is this, that man shall imagine that for his faith and for his works, God did elect and did predestinate him to that dignity! Even as if two or three beggars, chosen from the number of many, were, of the liberal mercy of a Prince, promoted to honour, should after brag and boast that their good service was the cause that the Prince did choose them.” (p. 76)

“Let the whole Scriptures be read and diligently marked, and no sentence (rightly understood) shall be found, that affirmeth God to have chosen us in respect of our works, or because He foresaw that we should be faithful, holy and just. But to the contrary, many places shall we find (yes, even so many as intreat of that matter)that plainly affirm that we are freely chosen according to the purpose of His good will, and that in Christ Jesus.” (p. 78)

“If God’s glory be declared and made manifest, even by the miseries which some creatures sustain, dare you therefore accuse God of cruelty? Consider your bold foolishness, and repent your blasphemies before vengeance strike.” (p. 85)

“We presume not to define what number God shall save, and how many He shall justly condemn: but with reverence we refer judgement to Him who is the universal Creator; whose goodness and wisdom is such that He can do nothing but wisely; and whose judgement is so perfect, that His works are exempted from the judgement of all creatures.” (p. 85)

“Before damnation there cometh a change in man; so that he of very good became evil, and so God’s just judgement found nothing but that which is evil to condemn.” (p. 91)

“If you cannot see just causes why God should make that thing very good which after should become extremely evil, accuse your own blindness; and desire of God to repress in you that presumption and pride which against the Eternal Son of God you have conceived.” (p. 91)

“We affirm and most constantly do believe, that in Christ Jesus, the eternal Son of the eternal Father, were we elected before all time. This you (the Anabaptists) can not abide, and therefore you seek all means to obscure the glory of Him to whom the Father hath given all power in heaven and in earth.” (p. 96)

“Acceptation of persons is when an unworthy person is preferred to a worthy, either by corrupt affection of those that do prefer him, either yet for some quality or external beauty that appeareth in man . . . For as God respecteth not the person of man, so respecteth He nothing that is or can be within man as the chief cause of his election. For what can God foresee, consider or know, to be in man that good is, which floweth not from His free mercy and goodness, as it is written, ‘We are not sufficient of ourselves to think any thing that good is, but all our sufficiency is of God, who worketh in us to do and to perform’.” (p. 100)

“We plainly affirm, that man, when he sinned, did neither look to God’s will, God’s counsel, nor eternal purpose; but did altogether consent to the will of the devil, which did manifestly gainsay God’s revealed will.” (p. 113)

“We say not that God’s ordinance is the cause of reprobation, but we affirm that the just causes of reprobation are hid in the eternal counsel of God, and known to His godly wisdom alone.” (p. 114)

“If you say, For what purpose then doeth their enlightening and illumination (see John 1v9) serve them? The apostle doth answer you, That they may be inexcusable; which reason, if it satisfy not your curiosity, quarrel with the Holy Ghost.” (p. 117)

“The Prophet (Isaiah 55) calleth not all indifferently to drink of these waters, but such as do thirst. And Christ restraineth His generality to such as did travail and were burdened with sin (Matthew 11:28): such, I say, He confesseth Himself to call to repentance; but to such as were just and whole, He affirmeth that He was not sent.” (p. 118)

“Ye (the Anabaptists) be proud contemners of the free grace of God offered to man in Christ Jesus. For with the Pelagians and Papists ye are become teachers of free will, and defenders of your own righteousness.” (p. 121)

“But justly leaving the reprobate to themselves, and to Satan their father, they willingly follow, without all violence or compulsion on God’s part, iniquity and sin, and so finally the way of perdition, to which they are naturally inclined. But if yet that any will affirm that therefore God’s foreknowledge doth but idly behold what they will do, and that in his eternal purpose, counsel and will, he will one thing and they will another, so that their will prevail against His, he shall not escape the crime of horrible blasphemy.” (p. 136)

“Neither yet therefore doth it follow that His foreknowledge, prescience, will or power, doth take away the free will of His creatures, but in all wisdom and justice (however the contrary appears to our corrupted judgements) he uses them as best pleases His wisdom to bring to pass in time that which before all time He had decreed.” (p. 141)

“Violence is done to the will of the creature when it willeth one thing and yet by force, by tyranny or by a greater power it is compelled to do the things which it would not . . . . Do we say that God did (or doeth) any such violence to His creatures? Did He compel Satan to tempt the woman when his will was contrary thereto? Did the will of Adam resist the temptation of the woman, and did he so hate and abhor to eat of that fruit, that it behoved God to compel his will repugnant thereto to eat of it, and so to break the commandments? Or did he not rather willingly hear and obey the voice of his wife?” (p. 144)

“True it is that we be elected in Christ Jesus to be holy and to walk in good works which God hath prepared. But every reasonable man knoweth what difference there is betwixt the cause and the effect. Election, in which I include the free grace and favour of God, is the fountain from which springeth faith, and faith is the mother of all good works. But what foolishness were it therefore to reason: ‘My works are the cause of my faith, and my faith is the cause of my election’?” (p. 157)

“We affirm that the causes of reprobation are most just, but yet we say, that they are incomprehensible to man.” (p. 160)

“The chief end of man’s creation we have before declared to be the glory of God, which if you can not see shine in the just condemnation of the reprobate, accuse your blindness.” (p. 161)

“We do not imagine the faithful members of Christ’s body to be stocks and stones insensible, without will or study of godliness, but we affirm that it is God that worketh in us the good will and good thought, for of ourselves we are not sufficient to think one good thought.” (p. 164)

“The first man fell, because the Eternal judged it expedient. Why He judged it so, we know not, yet it is certain that He so judged it, not but that He saw the glory of His name thereby to be illustrated . . . Man therefore falleth (God’s providence so ordaining) but yet he falleth by his own fault. For God of short time before had pronounced that all which He had made were very good.” (p. 168)

“Therefore let us rather behold the evident cause of damnation in the corrupt nature of mankind, than that we should pretend to search it, being hid, and utterly incomprehensible, in the predestination of God.” (p. 168)

“His (Adam’s) voluntary transgression is sufficient to his condemnation, neither yet is the secret counsel of God the proper or natural cause of sin, but the free and plain will of man. Therefore seeing that man findeth in himself the cause of his misery, what shall it profit him to seek it in the heavens?” (p. 170)

“God so worketh by His creatures and doeth use them to His providence, that the instrument by which He worketh ceaseth not to be evil. And although He convert the malice of the devil and of wicked men to good, yet they therefore are neither excusable, neither yet clean from sin, and their works are wicked and to be damned: for all works take their quality from the purpose and will of the author. Whosoever maketh no distinction betwixt these things maketh an horrible confusion.” (p. 176)

“That we be apt to discern that we have a will, to do this or that, this is a natural gift: but that we can choose, desire and do nothing but that which is evil, that cometh from the corruption of sin.” (p. 177)

“God is omnipotent and compelled to suffer nothing which He hath not appointed in His eternal counsel: He is a Spirit and free from all such passions as creatures be subject to; for in His eternal Godhead there is neither patience subject to pain, neither yet sorrow annexed with anguish and grief. But when such passions be attributed to God, it is for the weakness of our understanding that the Holy Ghost doth subject Himself in language and tongue to our capacity.” (p. 193)

“Before ye proceed any further, ye must prove that God did suffer in the vessels of wrath that which He neither could nor might remedy; and therefore that He fell in grief and sorrow that His power was no greater and his wisdom no more perfect. Woe be to your blasphemies for they compel me to write that which I gladly would not.” (p. 195)

“We say not, we teach not, nor believe, that Christ Jesus doeth only offer medicine and prescribe a diet as a common physician, leaving the using and observation of it to our will and power. But we affirm that in the hearts of His elect, He worketh faith, He openeth their eyes, He cureth their leprosy, He removeth and overcometh their disobedience; yea, by violence He pulleth them forth from the bondage of Satan, and so sanctifieth them by the power of His Holy Spirit, that they abide in His truth, according as He hath prayed for them, and so continue His vessels of glory for ever.” (p. 205)

“Do we not continually affirm, that as God of His great mercy hath called us to the dignity of His children, so hath He sanctified us, and appointed us to walk in pureness and holiness all the days of our life; that we shall continually fight against the lust and inordinate affections that remain in this our corrupt nature; that if we find not the Spirit of Christ working in us, that then we can never be assured of our election.” (p. 210)

“For herein stands the doubt whether that the unthankfulness of God’s children after they have once received mercy, grace and large benefits from God’s hands, doth so alienate the mind of God from them, that He beareth to them no manner of love, till they turn to Him by repentance. The contrary hereof we hold and affirm, not fearing to avow, that repentance, as it is joined to faith, which is the free gift of God, so it is the effect of God’s constant love toward them and no cause of the same.” (p. 238)

“Impossible it is that Christ’s death shall lack its effect, which is the life of those that of His Father are committed to His charge, of whom impossible it is that any shall perish. For the number of the brethren must be complete; neither doth it follow that exhortations and admonitions be superfluous and vain, for they are means which the wisdom of God knoweth to be most necessary to stir up our dull senses, which always be ready to lie in a certain security.” (p. 300)

“God willingly for causes known to His wisdom alone, permitteth and suffereth things to be done, which afterwards He will most justly punish.” (p. 323)

“And so is God’s justice rather accused than maintained by the foolishness of your curious brains, saying, God permitteth many things which He would not. What vanity is this? Is it not a thing confessed amongst all that God’s power is omnipotent? Who then can compel Him to suffer that which He would not? And why doth He willingly suffer things which in His law He hath forbidden? I answer, for the manifestation of His own glory, which is more precious than the heavens and the earth and all things contained therein.” (p. 353-354)

“The Word falling into the heart of the elect doth mollify and illuminate; but falling into the heart of the reprobate, it doth harden and more execrate the same, by reason of the quality and incurable corruption of the person.” (p. 387)

“True it is that God is merciful, gentle, liberal, protector, refuge and life to all. But to which all? To such as hate iniquity, love virtue, lament for their sins past, call upon His name in truth, and do unfeignedly seek His aid in the day of trouble. Of all these, no doubt, He will be intreated, however wicked and unthankful they had ever been before. But to the contrary He will destroy all that speak lies, He hateth all that work iniquity: neither will be show Himself merciful to such as maliciously do offend.” (p. 403)

“None of these sentences: ‘God biddeth all men every where to repent’, and offereth faith to all men are found, in that sense and meaning that ye (the Anabaptists) do understand them, in the whole Scriptures . . . But that generality is restrained by His own words, to those that thirst, that hunger, that mourn, that are laden with sin, as before we have taught.” (p. 404)

“The omnipotence of God and the freedom of His will we must constantly maintain: but we cannot admit that our God be variable, inconstant, subject to ignorance, neither yet that His godly will depend on the will and disposition of man. For that were not to leave God’s will free, but to bring it under the bondage of His creatures.” (p. 405)

“If His counsels be mutable and inconstant, then ceaseth He to be the God, who neither is, nor can be changed.” (p. 405)

“We have confessed that iniquity and sin is so odious to God that in it His goodness can never delight, neither yet can He have pleasure in the destruction of any creature, having respect to the punishment only.” (p. 405)

“If God willeth all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth, and yet many do perish in ignorance, and shall be condemned as Christ Jesus doth pronounce: then must it either follow that God’s will is mutable, and so He is inconstant, and not at all times like Himself, or else He is not omnipotent.” (p. 407)

“For if willingly He shall damn those whom before He would and had determined to save, is His will and determination changed. And if He shall damn those unwillingly, whom He would have saved, then is He not omnipotent.” (p. 408)

“The mind of the prophet (Ezek 33:11) was to stir such as had declined from God, to return unto Him by true repentance; and because their iniquities were so many, and offences so great, that justly they might have despaired of remission, mercy and grace; therefore doth the prophet, for the better assurance of those that should repent, affirm, That God delighteth not, nor willeth the death of the wicked. But of which wicked? Of him, no doubt, that truly should repent: in his death did not, nor never shall God delight. But He delighteth to be known a God that sheweth mercy, grace and favour to such as unfeignedly call for the same, how grievous so ever their former offences have been. But such as continue obstinate in their impiety, have no portion of these promises. For them God will kill, them will He destroy, and them will He thrust, by the power of His word, into the fire which never shall be quenched.” (p. 410)

“The Apostle in these words, ‘God willeth all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth’ (1 Tim 2:4), speaketh not of every man, and of every particular person, but of all men in general, that is to say, of men of all estates, all conditions, all realms, all ages. For as in Christ Jesus there is neither Jew nor Gentile, man nor woman, freeman nor servant, but all are one in Him, so can estate, no condition of man, no realm, no age, be proved so wicked and corrupt, but out of the like hath God called some to the participation of His light . . . For God willeth you (the church) to pray for your persecutors, that their eyes may be opened and they converted to the living God: who, no doubt, will save some of all estates, of all conditions, and vocations of men.” (p. 410-411)

“The Apostle Peter saith, ‘The Lord that hath promised is not slow, but He is long-suffering towards us, while He will none to perish, but all to come to repentance’ (2 Peter 3:9). The Apostle here meaneth not that all without exception shall be received to life by true repentance, but that the cause why God so long deferreth (as it were) the extreme judgement, is that the elect number of God’s children may be complete (as answer was given to those that cried under the altar to be revenged of the tyrannies that dwell on the earth) of these elect children God will none to perish.” (p. 418)

“Storm and rage, spew forth your venom and blaspheme, till ye (the Anabaptists) provoke God’s vengeance at once to be poured forth upon your own heads: this sentence will He never retract. He will have mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He will make hardhearted. That God in Himself hath but one will, which is holy, just, and permanent, that in Him there is no contradiction; that He is faithful and doth perform whatsoever He doth promise.” (p. 418)

“God, who hateth all iniquity, must needs resist the proud, destroy the lying lips, and remove from His society such as declare themselves enemies to His eternal Truth; the knowledge whereof, we confess with Job, cometh only by inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and doth not proceed from flesh or blood, from study, care or worldly wisdom, but is the free gift of God, revealed to the little ones, and commonly hid from the wisest of the world.” (p. 468)

J.P. Moreland on the value of apologetics



“I have trained people to share their faith for over twenty-six years. I can tell you from experience that when people learn what they believe and why, they become bold in their witness and attractive in the way they engage others in debate or dialogue. While pastoring a church in Baltimore, I once taught a twelve-week class on Christian apologetics. The course cost fifty dollars to take, required two textbooks, and had several homework assignments, including two papers. When the sixth week ended, a man named Bob came up to me after class and, with tears running down his cheeks, expressed his gratitude for the high academic standards and requirements in the class. I asked him why he was grateful about this. I will never forget his response. He told me that he had worked at the same place for ten years but had never shared his faith with anyone because he was afraid someone would ask him a question, he would not know the answer, and his inadequate preparation would embarrass him and the Christian faith. But at his workplace the week before this particular class, he had shared his faith with three workers because for the first time he felt he had some answers, and his boldness was strengthened by that conviction. Being a Christian is no different from caring about boats in this regard. There is nothing magic about being confident, articulate, and bold in either area. Knowing what you’re talking about may be hard work, but it clearly pays off.”

– J.P. Moreland, Love Your God With All Your Mind, p. 31-32 

D.A. Carson on gospel proclamation as an intellectual, truth-conveying exercise



“I am not for a moment denying that there is an affective element to gospel preaching, or that there is no appeal to the will. Far from it: I insist on both. But the affective element must spring from the play of truth on personality; the appeal to the will must be grounded in content. Gospel proclamation is, in this sense, an intellectual exercise; it is a truth-conveying exercise. There is a battle going on for the minds of men and women; well does the apostle know that in the Spirit-empowered proclamation of the whole counsel of God, men and women escape conformity to this world and are transformed by the renewing of their minds (Rom. 12:2).

American evangelicalism is in desperate need of intellectual and theological input. We have noted that not a little evangelical television is almost empty of content. It is mawkishly sentimental, naively optimistic, frighteningly ignorant, openly manipulative. Let me again insist: I am not arguing for dry intellectualism, for abstract disputation. But entertainment is not enough; emotional appeals based on tear-jerking stories do not change human behavior; subjective experiences cannot substitute for divine revelation; evangelical cliches can never make up for lack of thought. The mentality that thinks in terms of marketing Jesus inevitably moves toward progressive distortion of him; the pursuit of the next emotional round of experience easily disintegrates into an intoxicating substitute for the spirituality of the Word. There is non-negotiable, biblical, intellectual content to be proclaimed. By all means insist that this content be heralded with conviction and compassion; by all means seek the unction of the Spirit; by all means try to think through how to cast this content in ways that engage the modern secularist. But when all the footnotes are in place, my point remains the same: the historic gospel is unavoidably cast as intellectual content that must be taught and proclaimed.”

– D.A. Carson, The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism, p. 507-508